**What's behind the recent "Fractal Frenzy" in Personalized Medicine?**

**It is all about Geometry of Nature. Geos, the Universe, the Brain ... and the DNA.
Actually, it is at least a 2500 year long, steady story, with only the last 200 years accelerating. Even the last chapters only became "hurried" under extraordinary pressures; going for nuclear energy, computational ballistics, information geometry for intelligence, control of fighter jets by neural nets - or recently...Personalized Medicine**

**569 BC - 475 BC
Pythagoras.** Theorem of Pythagoras'

Greek "Geometer", Samos, Ionia

Distance measure in flat geometries (e.g. a surface) is x

(Theorem of Pythagoras' - middle school today)

**324 - 265 BC
Euclid (Elements).** Mathematical Language of Nature by Euclidean "Geo-Metry" is at least 2000 years old.

Measured land (flat 2-dimensional surfaces of Geos) in Egypt (Alexandria).

**1596 - 1650
Descartes** associates Brain Function with internal representation in Euclidean Geometry

**1642 - 11727
Isaac Newton** establishes physics and mechanics based on Euclidean Geometry

**------------------ FIRST "BIFURCATION" - BREAKING AWAY FROM EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRIES -----------**

**1775-1856
Farkas Bolyai** and his son

János Bolyai and

1777-1855

Johann Gauss

**------------------ SECOND "BIFURCATION" - NON-DIFFERENTIABLE GEOMETRIES APPEAR, -----------**

**1831-1889
duBois Reymond** blows open the field by proving continuous nondifferentiable function constructed by Weierstrass

**1845-1918
Cantor **set theory - an early predecessor of self-similarity theories - a core notion to later "fractals"

**------------------ THIRD "BIFURCATION" - CURVED GEOMETRY OF SPACETIME MANIFOLD TO SERVE PHYSICS OF UNIVERSE-----------**

**
1864-1907
Minkowski **established that space and time form a 4-dimensional manifold with a unified geometry. Euclidean separable x,y,z and t are blown away

**1879-1955
Albert Einstein** established that the metric tensor of the spacetime continuum is not uniform, the spacetime manifold is curved

**------------------ FOURTH "BIFURCATION" - QUANTUM MECHANICS TAKES OFF TO SERVE NUCLEAR PHYSICS-----------**

**1901-1976
Heisenberg
1887-1961 Schrödinger
**Establish quantum-mechanics, deviating from smooth-differentiable manifolds to generate the intrinsic mathematics for nuclear physics

Hausdorff

**1875-1941
Lebesgue** contributes with the "Lebesgue measure"

**1902-1950
Zipf**, with "Zipf's law" lays the rules of repetition

**1955
Shannon** information theorist deciphers military encryption

**1955
Johnny von Neumann**, done with von Neumann Algebra, declares that the intrinsic mathematics of brain function is unknown

**------------------ FIFTH "BIFURCATION" - DISCOVERY OF DOUBLE HELIX IMPLIES THAT "HELIXO"-METRY WILL BE NECESSITATED, AS ****EUCLIDEAN "GEO"-METRY IS UNLIKELY TO SUFFICE FOR DNA-----------**

**1953
Francis Crick and James Watson** discover the extrinsic geometry of the Genome: the Double Helix. Have the book with all ACTG letters. What does it say? In what language? Where is the code-book? What is the encryption-algorithm? Francis Crick turns later to Neural Networks for some answers.

**1977
Genentech, inc**. is incorporated in Greater Silicon Valley. Going for the "silver bullets" of medicine, just like starting to build a thermonuclear bomb before the physics is done. The pressure is "on".

**1975-1977
Prof. Benoit Mandelbrot** coins "Fractals" and publishes the Classic Book: "The Fractal Mathematics of Nature". Suspects that brain cells are also fractals

**------------------ SIXTH "BIFURCATION" - ****"FRACTAL FRENZY" IS SET OFF BY MANDELBROT - A HUGE FIELD OF FRACTAL GEOMETRY, FRACTAL ART AND FRACTAL DATA COMPRESSION EMERGES, SEE SKETCHY HISTORY**

**------------------ SEVENTH "BIFURCATION" - ****"FRACTAL FRENZY" IN PERSONALIZED MEDICINE - SEE SEPARATE "FRACTALS IN PERSONALIZED MEDICINE COLLECTION"**